Understanding Meibomian Gland Dysfunction as a Driver for Dry Eye Disease (Online CE Monograph)

Activity Description and Purpose

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common condition affecting the ocular surface. Changes in the functioning of the meibomian glands result in alteration of meibum from the glands that form the outer lipid layer of the tear film. Meibum is responsible for helping to lubricate the ocular surface, facilitating the spread of tears, and reducing evaporation. The presence of MGD is a major contributing factor for the development of dry eye disease. Understanding the signs and symptoms associated with MGD can help clinicians achieve a differential diagnosis and connect the impact of this chronic condition as a risk for the development and progression of dry eye disease. The desired results of this activity are to help optometrists understand the epidemiology and underlying pathophysiology of MGD, its diagnostic techniques, and current and emerging treatments.

Target Audience

This educational activity is intended for optometrists.

Learning Objectives

After completing this activity, participants will be better able to:

  • Describe the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Describe the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction–associated dry eye disease
  • Implement best practices for diagnosing patients with meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Identify the current treatments available for patients with meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Describe emerging or novel treatment of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Design evidence-based treatment plans for persons with meibomian gland dysfunction–associated dry eye disease
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 1.50 COPE
Course opens: 
Course expires: 


Paul Karpecki, OD, FAAO (Chair)
Associate Professor
University of Pikeville School of Optometry
Pikeville, Kentucky
Director, Cornea and External Disease
Kentucky Eye Institute
Lexington, Kentucky
Marc Bloomenstein, OD, FAAO
Director of Optometric Services
Schwartz Laser Eye Center
Scottsdale, Arizona
Katherine M. Mastrota, OD, MS, EMBA, FAAO, Diplomate ABO
Director of Optometry
The New York Hotel Trades Council and Hotel Association of NYC Health Center, Inc
New York, New York
Kelly K. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO
University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry
Birmingham, Alabama

Disclosure Policy

MedEdicus requires that anyone who is in a position to control the content of this educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. Financial relationship information is collected and resolved prior to the educational activity. All relevant relationships have been mitigated.


Marc Bloomenstein, OD, is a consultant for Alcon, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OcuSOFT Inc, Oyster Point Pharma, Inc, Sight Sciences, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc, and Thea Pharmaceuticals Limited; and is on the speakers bureau for Allergan, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Oyster Point Pharma, Inc, Sight Sciences, and Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.

Paul Karpecki, OD, is a consultant for AbbVie Inc*, Akorn, Inc*, Alcon*, Aldeyra*, Ametek, Inc, Atlas Medical GmbH, Avellino, Azura Ophthalmics Ltd, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, BlephEx*, Bio-Tissue, Bruno Vision, Cambium Medical Technologies, Dompé US, Inc, GoBiquity, Haag-Streit Group, Hilco Vision, Icare USA Inc, Imprimis Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Kala Pharmaceuticals, Kiora Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Konan Medical USA, Inc, Lentechs, Neurolens, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OASIS Medical, OCULUS, Inc, OCuSOFT Inc, Optase, Oyster Point Pharma, Inc, Rendia, Inc, RVL Pharmaceuticals, Inc, RxSIGHT, ScienceBased Health, Sentiss Pharma Pvt Ltd, Sight Sciences, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc, Surface Pharmaceuticals Inc, Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Thea Pharmaceuticals Limited, Topcon Medical Systems, Inc, Visant Medical, Inc, Vital Tears LLC, and Zeiss*; is on the speakers bureau for Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc*, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc*, Mallinckrodt, and Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc; and has stock options in SilkTech Biopharmaceuticals and Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Katherine M. Mastrota, OD, MS, EMBA, is a consultant for Allergan*, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Eyevance*, Paragon Vision Sciences, Santen*, ScienceBased Health, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc*, and Tarsus; receives royalties from OCuSOFT Inc and Optego; and has individual stocks or stock options in TearLab Corporation.

Kelly K. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, is a consultant for AbbVie Inc, Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Aldeyra Therapeutics, Allergan, Axim Biotech, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Bruder Healthcare*, Dompé US, Inc, Hanall Biopharma, Kala Pharmaceuticals, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Osmotica Pharmaceuticals plc, Oyster Point Pharma, Inc, RVL Pharmaceuticals, Inc, ScienceBased Health*, Sight Sciences, SilkTech Biopharmaceuticals*, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc*, Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Thea Pharmaceuticals Limited, TopiVert Ltd*, Visionology, and Yuyu Pharma, Inc; is a contracted researcher for Allergan*, Kala Pharmaceuticals*, and TearScience; and has individual stocks or stock options in Alcon*, Axim Biotech, Tear Film Innovations, Inc*, and Visionology.

* The financial relationship existed during the past 24 months but has now ended.

Planners, Managers, and Writers

Carrie Allen, PharmD, BCPP, BCPS, MedEdicus Content Manager for this activity, was previously employed by CVS within the past 2 years, but that relationship has ended.

Medical Writer: Kurt Brubaker is a consultant for Aquinas, Lexitas Pharma Services, Santen Inc, and 2e/Fire and Rain.

Other MedEdicus planners and managers have no relevant commercial relationships to disclose.

Accreditation Statement

COPE approved for 1.5 CE credits for optometrists.
COPE Course ID: 84165-TD (Asynchronous)
COPE Course Category: Treatment & Management of Ocular Disease


Disclosure of Commercial Support

This continuing education activity is supported through an educational grant from Bausch & Lomb Incorporated

Off-Label Discussion

This educational activity may include discussion of unlabeled and/or investigational uses of drugs or devices. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each drug or device discussed in this activity for approved dosing, indications, and warnings.

Sponsored by

Provider Contact Information

For questions about this educational activity, please contact MedEdicus LLC at info@mededicus.com.


The views and opinions expressed in this educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the State University of New York College of Optometry, MedEdicus LLC, or Bausch & Lomb Incorporated.

This CE activity is copyrighted to MedEdicus LLC ©2023. All rights reserved. 276

Available Credit

  • 1.50 COPE
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